A magic square consists of the distinct positive integers
If the rows and columns sum to the magic constant (so ignoring the main diagonals) it is called a semimagic square.
Several ways exist to automatically generate magic squares, among which the most famous one is the Siamese method to generate odd-sized magic squares. It is also called the de la Loubere's method. The method is purported to have been first reported in the West when de la Loubere returned to France after serving as ambassador to Siam.
This example is taken from the excellent description on Math Forum. I reproduce it almost literally here in case that link ever goes away.
Start with an empty n x n square, where n is odd. We'll begin with n = 5 and denote its blank entries with dots.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The problem of making this into a magic square is one of counting from 1 to 25 (in general n2) as one runs through the boxes of the square in some order. The basic rule for doing this is that one counts diagonally upwards to the right. For example, if one has written a 12 in the 2nd position of the 4th row
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . .then the numbers 13,14,15 will be placed thus:
. . . . 15 . . . 14 . . . 13 . . . 12 . . . . . . . .Let's see this in action.
First you have to know where to start: begin in the middle of the top row with a 1. (Here we for the first time use the assumption that n is odd, which guarantees that there is a middle square in the top row). If you don't start there, the row and column sums will be ok, but the diagonals won't add to the magic sum.
. . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Now, the first thing one observes is that it is impossible to move diagonally upwards from this position, since we are already at the top of the square. This is an example of what can go wrong with the basic method of moving diagonally upwards to the right. There are actually three things that can go wrong:
. . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .In other words, we pretend that the bottom row is the row above the top row. Moving diagonally upwards to the right means moving up one row and over one column to the right. So the 2 goes in the bottom row one column to the right of the column containing the 1.
. . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . 2 .and apparently have no place to go. But moving diagonally upwards to the right is the same as moving right one column and up one row. Moving right one column from the rightmost column puts us in the leftmost column, so 4 must be in the leftmost column, and moving up one row we put the 4 in the row above the row containing the 3. So we get
. . 1 . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . 3 . . . 2 .What if there is a number already occupying the square one would like to move into? We are in this situation after we place the number 5. Indeed, continuing from the previous diagram, we place the 5 diagonally upwards and to the right of the 4 and get
. . 1 . . . 5 . . . 4 . . . . . . . . 3 . . . 2 .and when we next try to place the 6, the square we would like to put the 6 in already has the 1 in it! When this happens, the rule is to abandon, just this once, the plan of moving diagonally upwards to the right and instead just drop down one square from the square one is in presently. So the 6 will be placed directly below the 5.
. . 1 . . . 5 . . . 4 6 . . . . . . . 3 . . . 2 .
After that, one continues counting normally:
. . 1 8 . . 5 7 . . 4 6 . . . . . . . 3 . . . 2 .
Eventually, one gets the whole 5x5 square in this way:
17 24 1 8 15 23 5 7 14 16 4 6 13 20 22 10 12 19 21 3 11 18 25 2 9The magic constant is 65 in this example, and indeed all rows, columns and the two main diagonals sum to 65.
The application of the basic rule of counting diagonally upwards, with the modifications above for handling the edges and the case where a number is in the way, is pretty straightforward. But there is one case that requires a little thought. Namely, when one gets to 15, where does one go next?
. . 1 8 15 . 5 7 14 . 4 6 13 . . 10 12 . . 3 11 . . 2 9Since 15 is in the top row, 16 would normally go in the bottom row. Since 15 is on the right edge, 16 would normally go on the left edge. The position which is in the bottom row and the left edge is the lower left corner. That is where we want to put the 16. Unfortunately, it is already occupied by the number 11. So there is a number in the way, and the rule is then to drop down to the square below the 15. That is why the 16 is directly below the 15.
. . 1 8 15 . 5 7 14 16 4 6 13 . . 10 12 . . 3 11 . . 2 9All other instances of the rules are a lot easier to figure out.
The same method was used to make a 3x3 magic square:
8 1 6 3 5 7 4 9 2
It is directly obvious that this construction is is really only one of a whole family. Instead of generating the diagonals going up/right, we could also have chosen to go down/left or up/left or down/right, appropiately changing the step we do when we come to an already filled in square.
But the family is more general in fact. Consider for example the follwing description of the pyramid method taken from Mathematics Enrichment.
The Pyramid method or extended diagonals consists of three steps:
The same Pyramid method can be used for any odd order magic square as shown below for the 5x5 square.
Now if you carefully observe the resulting magic squares, you see that it is in fact just the standard Siamese method, but with a different starting point (one to the right of the center) and another displacement in case a square is already occupied (go 2 to the right)
The standard dispacement also does not have to be a simple diagonal. Consider for example using a knights jump down right as standard move and moving up two as exceptional move:
10 12 19 21 3 17 24 1 8 15 4 6 13 20 22 11 18 25 2 9 23 5 7 14 16
However, not just everything works. Consider for example going one to the right as standard move and one down as exceptional move:
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 6 13 14 15 11 12 19 20 16 17 18 25 21 22 23 24Here even the rows and columns don't sum to the magic constant, and it's obvious that moving the starting point won't change this (you'll still end up with a row containing a permutation of 1,2,3,4,5 and another row containing a permutation of 21,22,23,24,25 which obviously don't have the same sum).
So the question arises: what exactly are the rules ?
Let's denote the amount of times we applied the standard move by i (start counting at 0), and the amount of times we did the exceptional move by j (again start counting at 0). And let's apply a coordinate system to the square, where x runs from left to right and y runs from top to bottom, again both counting from 0. And let's call the x and y coordinates of the initial number a' and b' respectively. Let's also call the dispacements of the normal step in the x and y direction u' and v'.
So for the first few steps in the Siamese method we get something like:
x = i*u'+a' y = i*v'+b'In the first example we started in the middle of the top row, so with
x = i+(n-1)/2 y = -iOops, we already get into trouble at
x = (i*u'+a')%n y = (i*v'+b')%nIn modular arithmetic it's directly obvious that
i0*f*(u'/f) = k*f*(n/f)or
i0*(u'/f) = k*(n/f)where u'/f has no factors in common with n/f (since
i*u = m *(n/f)*f*(u'/f) = m *n*(u'/f) = 0 (mod n) i*u = m'*(n/f)*f*(v'/f) = m'*n*(v'/f) = 0 (mod n)(
So each time i is a multiple of i0, we apply the exceptional case by adding and extra offset of p' and q' to x and y. So we get:
x = (i*u'+j*p'+a')%n y = (i*v'+j*q'+b')%nNotice that this is slightly different from the way we formulated the exceptional displacement up to this point, since that used to be relative to i0-1, so it correspondeds to (p'+u', q'+v'). This is
x = ( i-j+(n-1)/2)%n y = (-i+2*j)%n
Again it is obvious that in general when j is a multiple of n, this is
It's also interesting to see that i and j are symmetrical, so at least for filling up the matrix it doesn't matter if you exchange the normal displacement with the exceptional displacement (we don't say anything yet about if that gives a magic square or not).
So we have for both i and j basically n different values [0..n-1]. And each of these n2 combinations gives a certain (x, y) coordinate where we fill in j*n+i+1. We also found a necessary condition for the (x, y) coordinates to be all different, but don't know yet if the condition is sufficient. A necessary and sufficient condition will in fact be if for every (x, y) we can find a (i, j) mapping to it. So let's try to invert the basic formula:
i*u'*q'+j*p'*q' = x*q'-a'*q' (mod n) i*v'*p'+j*q'*p' = y*p'-b'*p' (mod n) ------------------------------------ i*(u'*q'-v'*p') = (x-a')*q'-(y-b')*p' (mod n)and simularly:
j*(u'*q'-v'*p') = (y-b')*u'-(x-a')*v' (mod n)This is obviously solvable if
i = ((x-a')*q'-(y-b')*p')/(u'*q'-v'*p') %n j = ((y-b')*u'-(x-a')*v')/(u'*q'-v'*p') %nor, after introducing new names for constants:
u = q'/(u'*q'-v'*p') (mod n) v = -v'/(u'*q'-v'*p') (mod n) p = -p'/(u'*q'-v'*p') (mod n) q = u'/(u'*q'-v'*p') (mod n) a = (b'*p'-a'*q')/(u'*q'-v'*p') (mod n) b = (a'*v'-b'*u')/(u'*q'-v'*p') (mod n)we get:
i = (x*u+y*p+a)%n j = (x*v+y*q+b)%nThis is in fact of exactly the same form as we started from, so viewing magic squares in the
i*g*((u'*q'-v'*p')/g) = (x-a')*q'-(y-b')*p' (mod n)for every x and y. So if we take
Let's quickly go back to the question if the conditions
gcd(n, u', v') = 1 gcd(n, p', q') = 1are sufficient. Consider
x = 2*i + 7*j (mod 39) y = 5*i +11*j (mod 39)Multiplying the second by 7 and subtracting the first times 11 gives:
7*y - 11 *x = 13*j (mod 39)So we see that the real reason is that the equations are not independent, and so not all (x, y) combinations are allowed. For example when x is 0, y must be 0, 13 or 26.
Let's go back to the original example:
x = i-j+(n-1)/2 (mod n) y = -i+2*j (mod n)So
i = 2*x+y+1 (mod n) j = x+y-(n-1)/2 (mod n)
For another example we'll take the pyramid method, which we can write as:
x = i+j+(n+1)/2 (mod n) y = -i+j+(n-1)/2 (mod n)So
i = (x-y-1)*(n+1)/2 (mod n) j = (x+y )*(n+1)/2 (mod n)This case is particularly interesting since it shows an example of displacements that are not a constant, but multiples of (n+1)/2. And due to the duality this makes us suspect that displacements of this form can also be used in the Siamese method (this suspicion will turn out to be true. You can get magic squares like that). Also notice that
So now let's consider:
value(x, y) = i+j*n where: i = (x*u+y*p+a)%n j = (x*v+y*q+b)%n and: gcd(u*q-p*v, n) = 1Notice that I sneakily subtracted one from the value. This doesn't really matter, since subtracting one from every value in the square makes no difference whatsoever to the magicness or semi-magicness of a square (though it changes the value of the magic constant obviously).
We know that all magic squares generated with the Siamese method are of this form. What about the other direction ? Due to the invertability, we know that all values from 1 to n2 will appear in the generated square. But obviously it's not always magic, for example:
i = x%n j = y%nLeads to this very obviously non-magic square:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24Clearly we must demand that the sum of the rows and columns gives the magic constant.
Let's first determine this magic constant. The total sum of all
elements in the square is obviously the mean value times the number of
S = TotalSum/n = n*(n2-1)/2 = n*(n-1)*(n+1)/2 = n * [n*(n-1)/2 + (n-1)/2]
Next let's get rid of that
0 = x0*u+y0*p+a (mod n) 0 = x0*v+y0*q+b (mod n)which we subtract from the basic formula to get:
i = (x-x0)*u+(y-y0)*p (mod n) j = (x-x0)*v+(y-y0)*q (mod n)This basically corresponds to taking off the top x0 rows of the square and reattaching them to the bottom, and removing the left y0 rows and attaching them to the right. This obviously does not change either the row or column sums (though it does change the diagonals). So since we are only going to demand semi-magicness in this section, it's enough to study:
value(x, y) = i+j*n where: i = x*u+y*p (mod n) j = x*v+y*q (mod n) and: gcd(u*q-p*v, n) = 1
i 0 u%n 2*u%n .... (n-1)*u%n j 0 v%n 2*v%n .... (n-1)*v%nIf we denote the sum over n multiples of u with sum(u, n), we get as condition for the total rowsum:
S = n * (n * (n-1)/2) + (n * (n-1)/2) = n * sum(v, n) + sum(u, n)
So we are led to study the sum of sequences of the form:
0 u%n 2*u%n .... (n-1)*u%nThe key question to ask here is if any of these values (after the first one) will be 0. Let's assume that the first multiplier for which this happens is m and that
gcd(u/µ, n/µ) = 1 m*µ*(u/µ) = k * µ * (n/µ) m*(u/µ) = k * (n/µ)All factors of n/µ are not in u/µ, so they must appear in m, so m is a multiple of n/µ. In the same way k must be a multiple of u/µ, so the smallest solution is
m = n/µ k = u/µSo the sequence to sum will look like:
gcd(u, n) = µ U = u/µ N = n/µ gcd(U, N) = 1 µ times (0 U*µ%n 2*U*µ%n .. (N-1)*U*µ%n)For example, if
0 4 2 0 4 2Which is indeed 2 times
0 2*2%6 2*2*2%6 0 4 2
So now let's consider one such subsequence. We can obviously divide out the common factor µ to get the sequence:
0 U%N 2*U%N .... (N-1)*U%NWhich in the example indeed corresponds to
0 2 1where each element then has to be multiplied by
Since it will in fact be a permutation, there will be a 1 in the sequence,
so there exists an m such that
At this point we have all we need to work out the general sum. First the sequence with the factor µ divided out:
sum = 0 1 2 .... N-1 (writing the sequence forward) sum = N-1 N-2 N-3 .... 0 (writing the sequence backward) ---------------------------- 2*sum = N-1+N-1+N-1 .... N-1 = N*(N-1) sum = N*(N-1)/2So adding back the µ factor and that we have this sequence µ times gives:
sum(u, n) = µ2 * N * (N-1)/2 = µ2 * (n/µ) * ((n/µ)-1)/2 = n * (n-µ)/2Notice that this is always less or equal to
S = n * (n * (n-1)/2) + (n * (n-1)/2) = n * sum(v, n) + sum(u, n)shows
We've also proven that if
And applying the same reasoning to j gives that all column sum to the
magic constant if and only if
Notice that at this point we haven't really used yet that n is odd.
So can this method lead to even squares ? Since u, v, p and q must be
relatively prime to n, all of them must be odd. but then
So now let's consider:
value(x', y') = i+j*n where: i = (x'*u+y'*p+a')%n j = (x'*v+y'*q+b')%n and: gcd(u*q-p*v, n) = 1 gcd(u, n) = gcd(v, n) = gcd(p, n) = gcd(q, n) = 1We know that every magic square generated with the Siamese method is of this form. What about the other direction ? Due to the invertability we know that every value will appear in the resulting magic square. Due to the conditions on u, v, p and q we know that all sums and rows sum to the magic constant. What remains is to study the diagonals.
The two diagonals meet in the center. To make the situation more symmetric, we will move the (x, y) coordinates so that (0, 0) is the center. So we introduce
x = x'-(n-1)/2 (mod n) y = y'-(n-1)/2 (mod n)so:
i = (x+(n-1)/2)*u+(y+(n-1)/2)*p+a' = x*u+y*p+(a'+(u+p)*(n-1)/2) (mod n) j = (x+(n-1)/2)*v+(y+(n-1)/2)*q+b' = x*v+y*q+(b'+(v+q)*(n-1)/2) (mod n)So by defining
a = a'+(u+p)*(n-1)/2 (mod n) b = b'+(v+q)*(n-1)/2 (mod n)We get the familiar:
value(x, y) = i+j*n where: i = (x*u+y*p+a)%n j = (x*v+y*q+b)%n and: gcd(u*q-p*v, n) = 1 gcd(u, n) = gcd(v, n) = gcd(p, n) = gcd(q, n) = 1
So let's run x and y from -(n-1)/2 to (n-1)/2. We get the following sequences
i: [-(n-1)/2*(u+p)+a]%n, [(1-(n-1)/2)*(u+p)+a]%n .... a%n .... [((n-1)/2-1)*(u+p)+a]%n [(n-1)/2*(u+p)+a]%n j: [-(n-1)/2*(v+q)+b]%n, [(1-(n-1)/2)*(v+q)+b]%n .... b%n .... [((n-1)/2-1)*(v+q)+b]%n [(n-1)/2*(v+q)+b]%nLet's denote the sum of the i sequence as sum(u+p, a, n), then we get for this diagonal:
S = n * (n * (n-1)/2) + (n * (n-1)/2) = n * sum(v+q, b, n) + sum(u+p, a, n)
For the other diagonal we let x run from -(n-1)/2 to (n-1)/2 while y runs from (n-1)/2 to -(n-1)/2. This gives:
i: [-(n-1)/2*(u-p)+a]%n, [(1-(n-1)/2)*(u-p)+a]%n .... a%n .... [((n-1)/2-1)*(u-p)+a]%n [(n-1)/2*(u-p)+a]%n j: [-(n-1)/2*(v-q)+b]%n, [(1-(n-1)/2)*(v-q)+b]%n .... b%n .... [((n-1)/2-1)*(v-q)+b]%n [(n-1)/2*(v-q)+b]%nso
S = n * (n * (n-1)/2) + (n * (n-1)/2) = n * sum(v-q, b, n) + sum(u-p, a, n)
So this time we study a sequence of the form
(-(n-1)/2*u+a)%n, ((1-(n-1)/2)*u+a)%n, ... (-u+a)%n, a%n, (u+a)%n, ... (((n-1)/2-1)*u+a)%n, ((n-1)/2*u+a)%nIt will be interesting to see if the value
(-k*u+a)%n, ((1-k)*u+a)%n, .... (-u+a)%n, a%n, (u+a)%n, ... ((k-1)*u+a)%n, (k*u+a)%nwhich will appear µ times. Since we want to try to get rid of a factor µ again, let's write a as
(-k*U*µ+å*µ+A)%n, ((1-k)*U*µ+å*µ+A)%n, .... (-U*µ+å*µ+A)%n, å*µ+A%n, (U*µ+å*µ+A)%n, ... ((k-1)*U*µ+å*µ+A)%n, (k*U*µ+å*µ+A)%nThis sequence consists of multiples of µ (which divides n) plus A where
(-k*U*µ+å*µ)%n+A, ((1-k)*U*µ+å*µ)%n+A, .... (-U*µ+å*µ)%n+A, å*µ%n+A, (U*µ+å*µ)%n+A, ... ((k-1)*U*µ+å*µ)%n+A, (k*U*µ+å*µ)%n+ASo if we remove n times A from the elements of the sequence, we get
(-k*U*µ+å*µ)%n, ((1-k)*U*µ+å*µ)%n, .... (-U*µ+å*µ)%n, å*µ%n, (U*µ+å*µ)%n, ... ((k-1)*U*µ+å*µ)%n, (k*U*µ+å*µ)%nWhich is of the form we already handled, and equals sum(u, n) (the å additions again only cause an extra permutation, but do not change the sum). So
sum(u, a, n) = sum(u, n) + n * A = n*(n-µ)/2+n*A = n*(n+2*A-µ)/2
So the demand that:
S = n * (n * (n-1)/2) + (n * (n-1)/2) = n * sum(v+q, b, n) + sum(u+p, a, n)leads us to consider:
n * (n * (n-1)/2) + (n * (n-1)/2) = n * (n*(n+2*B-ð)/2) + n*(n+2*A-µ)/2 n * (2*B-ð+1) + (2*A-µ+1) = 0Let's consider 2*A-µ+1. The possible values of A are in [0..µ-1], so the possible values of this run in [-(µ-1)..µ-1] and
2*A-µ+1 = 0 2*B-ð+1 = 0or, if we consider it our job to determine a and b once u, v, p and q are known:
A = (µ-1)/2 B = (ð-1)/2Each diagonal will lead to a condition of this kind. They must of course be compatible.
Let's recap what we worked out in the previous section:
µ = gcd(u+p, n) A = a%µ ð = gcd(v+q, n) B = b%ð 2*A = µ-1 2*B = ð-1 µ' = gcd(u-p, n) A' = a%µ' ð' = gcd(v-q, n) B' = b%ð' 2*A' = µ'-1 2*B' = ð'-1So the compatibility conditions become:
a = s * µ + A = s' * µ' + A' b = t * ð + B = t' * ð' + B'with s, s', t and 't integers
s * µ + A = s' * µ' + A' s * µ + (µ-1)/2 = s' * µ' + (µ'-1)/2 (2*s+1)*µ = (2*s'+1)*µ'So we must find out more about
So each factor of µ' must appear in 2*s+1, and each factor of µ must appear in 2*s'+1, so:
2*s'+1 = (2*k+1) * µ 2*s+1 = (2*k+1) * µ'With k an integer (we know the factor is odd because 2*s'+1 is odd). So:
a = s * µ + (µ-1)/2 = ((2*s+1)*µ-1)/2 = ((2*k+1)*µ*µ'-1)/2 = k*µ*µ'+(µ*µ'-1)/2Formulating a in terms of µ' leads to the same formula, so we found the necessary and sufficient condition for compatibility of a. And in the same way we find:
b = ((2*l+1)*ð*ð'-1)/2 = l*ð*ð'+(ð*ð'-1)/2And translating back to (x, y) we see:
a' = ((2*k+1)*µ*µ'-1)/2-(u+p)*(n-1)/2 = k'*µ*µ'+(1-u-p)*(µ*µ'-1)/2 b' = ((2*l+1)*ð*ð'-1)/2-(v+q)*(n-1)/2 = l'*ð*ð'+(1-v-q)*(ð*ð'-1)/2In the last step I used that
So the final conclusion is that we get a magic square generated with the Siamese method if and only if:
value(x, y) = i+j*n where: i = (x*u+y*p+k*µ*µ'+(1-u-p)*(µ*µ'-1)/2)%n j = (x*v+y*q+l*ð*ð'+(1-v-q)*(ð*ð'-1)/2)%n and: gcd(u*q-p*v, n) = gcd(u, n) = gcd(v, n) = gcd(p, n) = gcd(q, n) = 1 µ = gcd(u+p, n) µ' = gcd(u-p, n) ð = gcd(v+q, n) ð' = gcd(v-q, n) and k and l are arbitrary integers.We can also write i and j as:
i = ((2*x-n+1)*u+(2*y-n+1)*p+(2*k'+1)*µ*µ'-1)/2%n j = ((2*x-n+1)*v+(2*y-n+1)*q+(2*l'+1)*ð*ð'-1)/2%n
Let's first consider the original example again.
(u, v, p, q) = (2, 1, 1, 1) µ = gcd(3, n) µ' = gcd(1, n) = 1 ð = gcd(2, n) = 1 ð' = gcd(0, n) = nSo we must distinguish two cases:
i = (2*x+y+k')%n j = (x+y-(n-1)/2)%n
i = (2*x+y+3*k'+1)%n j = (x+y-(n-1)/2)%n
i = (2*x+y+3*k'+1)%n j = (x+y-(n-1)/2)%n
In the previous case it was very interesting that the i formula had an almost arbitrary offset. It was in a way caused by µ and µ' being small constants. Let's try to get that effect on both i and j:
(u, v, p, q) = (2, 2, 1, -1) det = u*q-v*p = -2-2 = -4, which is prime relative to all odd numbers, so the square will be magic. µ = gcd(3, n) µ' = gcd(1, n) = 1 ð = gcd(1, n) = 1 ð' = gcd(3, n)Again we must distinguish two cases:
i = (2*x+y+k')%n j = (2*x-y+l')%n
i = (2*x+y+3*k'+1)%n j = (2*x-y+3*l')%n
i = (2*x+y+3*k'+1)%n j = (2*x-y+3*l')%nIf we for example take
5 12 24 6 18 21 8 20 2 14 17 4 11 23 10 13 25 7 19 1 9 16 3 15 22It's interesting to note that the average value, 13, does not appear in the center.
So what if we decided to move the 13 to the center ? We can take two columns from the right side and reattach them at the left, and take one row from the top and attach it to the bottom. This sort of operation would obviously not impact the semi-magicness of the square, but it might disturb the diagonals, so the result might not be a magic square.
In the example under consideration 2 would move to the top left, and this
fact of course completely determines this "translation". In
general, we can decide to move the number at
i = x*u+y*p+a (mod n) j = x*v+y*q+b (mod n) x' = x-x0 (mod n) y' = y-y0 (mod n)to
i = (x'+x0)*u+(y'+y0)*p+a = x'*u+y'*p+(a+x0*u+y0*p) = x'*u+y'*p+a' (mod n) j = (x'+x0)*v+(y'-y0)*q+b = x'*v+y'*q+(b+x0*v+y0*q) = x'*v+y'*q+b' (mod n) a' = a+x0*u+y0*p (mod n) b' = b+x0*v+y0*q (mod n)(I used the
So if we choose the average value in the center and use a coordinate
i = (x*u+y*p+k*n+(n-1)/2)%n j = (x*v+y*q+l*n+(n-1)/2)%n(I left in the k and l to stress the complete set of solutions. In practise they of course have no influence and you just drop them). If you now consider two points in positions symmetric with respect to the center, their x and y coordinates have opposite sign, so equally much gets added or subtracted from (n-1)/2. And since 0 an n-1 are equally far from (n-1)/2, if the modulo wraps -1 or lower up, the other position is at n or higher and gets wrapped down equally much. So the sum of the values at symmetric positions is constant, and in fact twice the average (and now central) value,
In fact, a square is called "associative" if all positions
symmetric to the center sum to
And since the whole square is on average filled with the average value and all pairs (except the center) sum to twice the average value, every associative semi-magic square must have the average value in the center, so the two conditions are equivalent for siamese squares.
a = ((2*k+1)(2*M+1)*µ*µ'-1)/2 b = ((2*l+1)(2*E+1)*ð*ð'-1)/2which is compatible with the condition for the diagonals to sum to the magic constant, so every associative semi-magic Siamese square is magic. So moving the average value to the center in the example in fact didn't destroy the magicness. On the contrary, it's a way you can make any semi-magic Siamese square magic.
Translating back to zero-based coordinates for
i = (x*u+y*p+(1-u-p)*(n-1)/2)%n j = (x*v+y*q+(1-v-q)*(n-1)/2)%n
Going back to our standard example
i = (2*x+y+1)%n j = ( x+y-(n-1)/2)%nwhich is the exact formula we found for the example inversions. So the classic construction gives associative magic squares.
The other example we recently looked at was
i = (2*x+y+1)%n j = (2*x-y)%nNotice how choosing u+p and v+q to be odd tends to get rid of the ugly offsets.
When all the diagonals, including those obtained by "wrapping around" the edges, of a magic square sum to the same magic constant, the square is said to be a panmagic square.
In this example from MathWorld you see at the left the normal magic square condition and to the right the conditions for all wrapped diagonals (in both directions):
If you go back to the sequences we studied when demanding a square is magic, it's easy to see that e.g. moving z times one down from the main diagonal corresponds to adding z*p to the i entries and z*q to the j entries. Each of these must give a component of the magic constant (We only demanded that all diagonals sum to the same value, but since in this way we cover all positions, this value must be the magic constant. And the diagonal compatibility condition will also be fullfilled). So:
n * (n-1)/2 = sum(u+p, a+z*p, n) = sum(u+p, n) + (a+z*p)%µ * n n * (n-1)/2 = sum(v+q, a+z*q, n) = sum(v+q, n) + (a+z*q)%ð * n(moving the diagonals to the right instead of down would correspond to adding z*u and z*v and will of course lead to the same conclusions, since in the end they represent the same diagonals). Since each of these must give the same result irrespective of z, it follows that
µ = µ' = ð = ð' = 1
So a Siamese square is panmagic if and only if:
value(x, y) = i+j*n where: i = (x*u+y*p+k)%n j = (x*v+y*q+l)%n and: gcd(u*q-p*v, n) = 1 gcd(u, n) = gcd(v, n) = gcd(p, n) = gcd(q, n) = 1 gcd(u+p, n) = gcd(u-p, n) = gcd(v+q, n) = gcd(v-q, n) = 1 and k and l are arbitrary integers.We can easily make the square associative too by choosing k and l so that they are of the form we determined higher.
Looking again at the examples, we see that
i = (2*x+y+k)%n j = (2*x-y+l)%nare panmagic if n is not a multiple of 3, so of the form
What happens in the previous example is pretty typical. Siamese squares
that are a multiple of 3 never seem to be panmagic. Why ? u+p, u-p, u and
p may obviously not be multiples of 3, otherwise their gcd with n is at
least 3, so
In a size n square, we can write each value as a+n*b with
i = (2*x+y+4)%n j = (2*x-y)%nthe following decomposition:
4 11 23 5 17 4 1 3 0 2 0 10 20 5 15 20 7 19 1 13 0 2 4 1 3 20 5 15 0 10 16 3 10 22 9 = 1 3 0 2 4 + 15 0 10 20 5 12 24 6 18 0 2 4 1 3 0 10 20 5 15 0 8 15 2 14 21 3 0 2 4 1 5 15 0 10 20or, if we divide out the factor 5 in the last square we get these two patterns:
4 1 3 0 2 0 2 4 1 3 0 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 0 2 1 3 0 2 4 3 0 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 0 2 4 1 3 0 3 0 2 4 1 1 3 0 2 4These two squares of course correspond to the i and j squares since the values in a Siamese square are i+n*j. One possible name for this kind of regular patterns with repeated values is "magic carpets".
In for example the i square you can clearly see how moving to the right each time adds u (2), while moving down each time adds p (1). Moving along the diagonal from top-left to bottom-right adds u+p (3), while moving from bottom-left to top-right adds u-p (1). In the j square moving to the right adds v (2), while moving down adds q(-1) and the diagonals add v+q and v-q, all of this modulo 5 of course.
But we in fact studied this kind of sequence already when calculating
sums over it. In particular, we studied when the patterns repeats, which
didn't happen if the step was relatively prime to n. And since
E B D A C a c e b d A C E B D e b d a c B D A C E d a c e b C E B D A c e b d a D A C E B b d a c eAnd writing the two together gives a so-called "Graeco-Latin square" (normally written with greek and latin letters, but since most greek letters aren't in latin-1, i use upper- and lowercase letters:
Ea Bc De Ab Cd Ae Cb Ed Ba Dc Bd Da Ac Ce Eb Cc Ee Bb Dd Aa Db Ad Ca Ec Bewhich gives us another way to represent a semi-magic square.
Demanding that the diagonals don't repeat any value in the i square
Another condition that was needed for a magic square was that each
As an application consider the following (non Siamese of course) 4x4 panmagic square:
0 7 12 11 13 10 1 6 3 4 15 8 14 9 2 5which has the interesting extra property that each sub 2x2 square (even when wrapping over the edges) adds to the magic constant, for example
So consider a rectangular window of size w x h which would give the same sum of values wherever you place it (including wrapping). Choose a certain value in the j square, and consider all the position of this value as places to put the top-left corner of the rectangle. Fixing this value fixes all the j-value in all other positions in the rectangle since moving right is adding v and moving down is adding q (modulo n). so the complete j contribution is fixed.
In the i square, we now have the rectangle positioned with each
possible value once in the upper-left corner, and this value again fixes
all other i entries by the constant offsets u and p. Now consider the
two i-rectangles with for example 0 and 1 in the upper-left corner. All
values in the second rectangle are one higher than in the first rectangle,
except for any cases of n-1, which would become n and wrap to 0. So if
the first rectangle has z times n-1, we find that we add 1 w*h times and
subtract z times n when going from the first rectangle to the second. And
the sum must remain constant, so
Now consider two rectangles shifted by 1 down, for example:
x x x . . . . . . . x x x . . X X X . . x x x . . X X X . . . . . . . X X X . . . . . . . . . . . .Since both rectangles contain the exact same set of values (w*h/n times every value), the row that gets removed from the top must be a permutation of the row that gets added at the bottom. So subrows of width w at a distance h from each other are each others permutations. Now consider two such subrows shifted by 1 right:
x1 x2 x3 . . . X2 X3 X4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x5 x6 x7 . . . X6 X7 X8 . . . . . . . . . . .The top subrow of x's is a permutation of the bottom subrow. The same for the two subrows of X's. Going from the left pattern to the right, at the top we remove x1 and add X4. And at the bottom we remove x5 and add X8. So there are two possibilities:
A very simple exercise is to prove that the following shape has a constant sum in every 5x5 panmagic Siamese quare:
. . x . . . x x x . . . x . . . . . . . . . . . .